Wednesday, 30 April 2014

Exam revisions: tips and help

Dear everyone,

Exam time is upon us ! But before you drop into the abyss of panic attacks, all-nighters, energy drinks overdoses and general despair, read what follows! UCD Student Union is here for you, and so are we, the Archaeology Society.
  • Exam writing advice
The advice given during the study seminar the Society organised can be found here, along with the handout containing all the tips and advice from the various teachers in the School of Archaeology. 

In addition to this, the article by Sarah Delaney and Katherine McCormack with advice for students with dyslexia and dyspraxia can be found here
  • New library opening hours
To accommodate exam revision, the James Joyce library will be opened from 7am to midnight on all week days during the exam period. Please check the full library opening times here.
  • Late Night study areas
If you want to keep on revising after the library has closed, know that the Astra Hall will be opened until 3am on weekdays, and 1am at weekends.

  • FREE exam shuttle

The majority of exams will be taking place in the well-renowned and feared RDS. Don't know where this is? Fear not, there is a free bus shuttle to the RDS. More details here.

And if you would still rather cycle, here is the route from UCD.

View Larger Map

I hope this helps, and again, best of luck to you all !

Sunday, 27 April 2014

Seminar report: "Bourges-Avaricum, Central France: a case of early but fragile urbanisation in temperate Europe"

On Thursday Professor Ian Ralston took us on a tour of the rich but puzzling site of Bourges in central France. This settlement is described in Caesar’s De Bello Gallico as well as Livy’s Ab Urbe Condita as the home of the Bituriges Cubi tribe. The main site, a promontory rising above the low plains is today a bustling town, but excavations around the edge of the built up area as well as the occasional rescue dig in the centre have turned up evidence of a cosmopolitan town in the 5th century BC that was as as well connected as the modern conurbation on top of it.

Professor Ralston first related the history of archaeological excavation in the area, from antiquarian finds in graves at the edge of town to the modern excavations on French army property. From the beginning finds of Greek and Roman pottery such as those at the Route de Dun grave made it apparent that this site was well connected to the Mediterranean world. More modern excavations at the heavily urbanised hilltop turned up further high-status material, from more Mediterranean pottery to local rilled ware. Waste shows that unusual, and most likely hunted, foods such as the crane were being consumed. Alongside this, a partial building with painted plaster walls and another of mud-brick construction show that this was a very well-to-do part of town in the early Iron Age.

It is on the outskirts of this ancient city where evidence of a more puzzling nature is found. To the Southeast and East are two areas of workshops of the type found at the German site of Hochdorf: semi-subterranean and apparently built without foundations or postholes. These workshops were the source of plenty of manufacturing-type finds, such as pins discarded midway through construction due to defects. Alongside these however, were the same sort of high-status finds recovered from the hilltop; yet more Greek red and black figure pottery along with Amphorae from Marseille indicating the import of fine wine. The high status locally made rilled ware was also present.
The extent of these manufacturing ‘suburbs’ is impressive; the Eastern area, Port Sec, has turned up 98 workshops so far with separate ‘districts’ for the manufacture of bronze and iron objects.

The puzzle lies in the fleeting life of this town. All features relating to the workshops date to within 475-450 BC and all are infilled by the mid 5th century. Professor Ralston believes the central promontory was the focal point of a town conservatively estimated to be 2 kilometres squared in size, though he proposes it could be as large as 8 square kilometres. Bourges fits into a larger pattern of mid 5th century collapse seen in sites like Vix. It seems a fragile Proto-state system began to grow around this time without the top-down wealth concentration system seen in other periods. An echo of its collapse could be what Livy mentions when he talks of the King of the Bituriges cubi sending his sons away from his Kingdom due to a population problem in Ab Urbe Condita.

Whatever the cause, Professor Ralston’s tale of Bourges was a highly enlightening talk about the early stages of the European Iron age (and, as was pointed out, a little jealousy-causing to Irish archaeologists who do without the presence of such rich sites).
By Sam Hughes 

Wednesday, 23 April 2014

Seminar report: "Debating theories of Roman Imperialism" by Dr. Andrew Gardner, UCL

For the penultimate talk in our seminar series, we were given food for thought in the form of a theoretical debate where Dr. Gardner tackled the current issues in the relationship between theory and Roman archaeology, giving us an overview of its evolution within the discipline, and some ideas on how theory can be used . develop our understanding of the Roman Empire.

Contrary to other archaeological disciplines, Roman archaeology has tended to neglect theory, largely as a result of the incredible amount of data available which led to a focus on empirical studies. In 1991, the Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference (TRAC) was created and one of the first issues it addressed was that of “Romanisation”, a concept over which debates have raged through the following decade. Indeed, some established approaches took Rome as the focal point and viewed the relationship between the Empire and its conquered territories in colonial terms, with the acculturation of the defeated and their conversion to the superior Roman culture. This was complemented to a certain extent by traditional historical explanations and core/periphery model.
However, the rise of post-colonial discourse – e.g. Said, Babha... - meant that the focus was shifted and more weight was given to the “others”, the non-Romans and a more “nativist” point of view was adopted. This perspective was variously influenced by Marxism, feminism and post-structuralism. It paid attention to evidence for resistance in the conquered provinces, and concepts such as discrepant identities and hybritidity were developed in the 1990s (see works by Van Dommelen, Mattingly below). In this way, the theoretical discourse in Roman archaeology went beyond the simplistic Roman/native dichotomy. However, this reversal of focus also resulted in some problems, notably the overemphasis laid on the literary sources, and the lack of attention paid to issues of power and violence: the multicultural nature of the Empire got highlighted, but the violence inherent to the processes of conquest and imperial rule has been minimised.
Globalisation theories have stressed the connectivity and communication aspects of the Empire, highlighting the role of material culture and consumption. Within this framework, concepts such as hybridity/hybridisation and “glocalisation” – the idea that within a global network of exchange, artefacts take on a local meaning in different parts of the network – have been developed to address satisfactorily the huge variety of interactions present within the Roman Empire and its provinces. Some argue however, that globalization is   a Western post-mediaeval phenomenon and cannot be applied to the study of past societies. The different is one of scale and intensity of communication though, for it can be shown that the different part of the ancient world were connected by trading and diplomatic links, even prior to the emergence of the Roman Empire.
Post-colonial theories stress a marginal – bottom-up - approach, globalisation theories on the other hand stress a systemic –top-down- perspective: the distinctive features of institutional articulation of power, identity and Empire are thus lost in the middle. For this reason, Dr. Gardner argued for the adoption of an “institutional archaeology” to gain a better understanding of cultural change in the past. By studying traditions and innovations in practice, we can understand the relationship between communities and institutions and the nesting of identities within power-flows, inside an overarching spatial and temporal reality.  Dr. Gardner used to case-studies to illustrate his argument: the bathhouse in the military fortress at Caerleon, Wales,  and the rural settlement of Cotswold community.
At Caerleon, the fortress was built according to the standards of military architecture, with a strict hierarchy of space, e.g. a large house for the centurion, smaller rooms for the legionaries. In addition to the living quarters, other buildings in the fortress served regimental practices, such as the bathhouse. Bathing played an important unifying role within the soldier community – a community composed of men coming from various provinces of the Empire. But at Caerleong, in the 4th century, we see a change in the use of space: the pool of the bathhouse goes out of use and is used as a rubbish dump. This in turn tells us something about changes in practices within the unit: bathing as a social activity went into disuse: what can this tell us about different dynamics within the military community? This interaction of actors and institutional structures is rather easy to see in the case of the military because we know what the standard situation would be, but Gardner’s study of the rural settlement at Cotswold community showed how this could be applied to a different scenario. There, it is the analysis of artefact distribution across the site which could inform the archaeologist about changing practices over time. And with changing practices come changing relationships, and changes in identity construction.
To conclude, practice theories have proven their worth in illuminating the material, social and temporal aspects of life in the past. It is a useful theoretical framework to address issues of cultural change and identity studies. Post-colonial studies in Roman archaeology are quite different than in other disciplines: no other empire has been studied in this way, probably because of the role Rome took as an example for modern nations’ own colonialism in the 19th century. The study of the Roman Empire is thus not just that of a past civilisation, it is intertwined with our understanding of our present society.
On behalf of UCD School of Archaeology and the Archaeology Society, I would like to thank Dr. Gardner for such an interesting talk. The argument he presented to us can be found in his latest paper published in Britannia (see below for references).
By Alexandra Guglielmi
Some references for further reading:
Gardner, A. (2012). Time and empire in the Roman world. Journal of Social Archaeology, 12.2, 145-166.
Gardner, A. 2013. Thinking about Roman Imperialism: Postcolonialism, Globalization and Beyond? Britannia 44, 1-25
Gosden, C. 2001. Postcolonial archaeology. Issues of culture, identity, and knowledge, in I. Hodder (ed.) Archaeological Theory Today. Cambridge: Polity Press, 241-261
Hingley, R. 2010. Cultural diversity and unity: Empire and Rome, in S. Hales and T. Hodos (eds) Material Culture and Social Identities in the Ancient World, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 54-75
Mattingly, D. 2010. Imperialism, Power and Identity: Experiencing the Roman Empire, Princeton University Press
Van Dommelen, P. 2005. “Colonial interactions and hybrid practices: Phoenician and Carthaginian settlement in the ancient Mediterranean” in G. Stein (ed.) The Archaeology of Colonial Encounters: Comparative Perspectives. Oxford: School of American Research
Woolf, G. 1997, “Beyond Romans and natives” World Archaeology 28(3), 339-350

Tuesday, 22 April 2014

Seminar series: "Bourges Avaricum, Central France: a case of early but fragile urbanisation in temperate Europe"

Dear everyone, 

This week, the final seminar of our 2013/2014 lecture series will take place. We are welcoming Professor Ian Ralston from the University of Edinburgh! 
Thursday 24th April
Room A109, Newman Building

Friday, 18 April 2014

A day of Archaeology: coffee morning, seminars and... the table quiz!

****Update: BREAKING NEWS !! The prizes for the table quiz (see below) this year include blenders, iPod docks, sets of 4 headphones, video games, board games, books and a Guitar Hero guitar ! Excited much? We are! Come to the quiz this Thursday ! Don't miss out ! ****

Dear everyone,

This year is drawing to a close and before exams fall upon you like falcons upon its prey, please let us entertain you with a programme filled with academic and NON academic activities ! So ladies and gentlemen, please put the date of Thursday 24th April  in your diaries !

12-2pm Coffee morning (Red Room)
2-4pm Study Seminar   (Red Room)
5:30-7pm Evening seminar (A109, Newman)
7:30-10:30pm TABLE QUIZ ! (Red Room)*

*Nota: There will be a small fee of 2€ per person for the Table Quiz. Teams of 4.

Firstly, we will have our coffee morning that day- and not on Wednesday 23rd- so that all assignments can be handed in in time. We would not blame you for preferring coffee and Oreos to finishing those nasty essays of yours, but our moral duty is to keep you on the right path of academia!
This will be in the Red Room between 12pm and 2pm.

The after you have relaxed and feasted on our excellent selection of biscuits - yes, it is excellent ! - we will hold a study seminar to help you get ready for exams, answer your questions, give you tips, and much more! We will have a special guest speaker - yet to be confirmed - from the School to share their wisdom and experience with you.

Then - oh yes, it gets even better ! - we will head back to the Newman Building for the last Thursday seminar of the year, a fantastic talk by Prof. Ian Ralston from the University of Edinburgh. He will be telling us about Bourges-Avaricum, an oppidum in central France and a possible example for early urbanism in Europe ! This will be in room A109 at 5:30pm.

And then finally, the one event you have all been waiting for: THE TABLE QUIZ !!! For this, we will go back to the Red Room and be entertained for the rest of the evening by tricky questions, drinks, and special prizes !!

AGM 2014 and new committee for 2014/2015

Dear everyone,

Last night, the Archaeology Society held its annual AGM. And what a night! After an introduction by Dr Steve Davis, current Auditor Cian Corrigan gave an overview of the Society's work this year through a powerful slideshow, summarising all our trips, events, charity events, nights out... Pictures brought back memories of these good moments, and Cian gave us extra info like the fact that for both the Halloween and the Masquearade Balls, the Archaeology Society sold the most tickets ! Well done everyone !

Cian then gave an update on our current internet presence, which I shall briefly recap here.
Our Facebook group  has welcome almost 200 new members since September and this year only, we have hosted more than 30 events, ranging from special coffee mornings to day trips, to evening seminars.
This website was launched in August 2013 and to this date (18/04/2014), it has received 7895 visitors, from a wide range of countries:
United States
United Kingdom

Our Twitter account has to this day 276 followers, including none other than the British Museum, the National Museum of Ireland, the Museo Nazionale Romano,and Oxford publishers. It is a growing platform which we are hoping to develop in the future and give the Society more online publicity.

Finally, the elections took place for the 2014/2015 committee and here are the results:

Auditor: Micheal Butler
Treasurer: Rory Blount
Secretary: Aisling O'Riordain Greene
PRO: Emily Geoghegan
Trip Officer: Sean Kinsella
Web administrators: Alexandra Guglielmi, Sam Hughes
ACMs: Stephen Domican, Mollie Christina Dogherty, Sarah Delaney
Brandon Walsh, Patricia Kenny, Melanie Dunne 

Committee 2014-2015
(left to right: Rory, Alex, Sam, Sean, Micheal, Emily, Aisling, Melanie, Mollie, Stephen, sarah & Brandon)

This is all for now! Stay tuned for the fantastic final events the Society has prepared for you next Thursday...

Alexandra Guglielmi

Thursday, 17 April 2014

Trip to the Dublin mountains: the story and the photographs !

On Saturday 12th April 2014, the Society went back to its roots and took a group of us to the Dublin mountains for a walking tour. Here are the words of Emmet Fennelly, our Trip Officer.

You can see all the photographs on our Flickr gallery.

Trip to the Dublin mountains

"A wet start to Saturday morning didn't stop the members of the archaeology society from embarking on an amazing hike through the Dublin Mountains guided by Seamus Murphy.
The 15km trip began at 11am when we departed from Larch Hill international scout and guide campsite. Many tombs and cairns were shown to us on the way, the first (a wedge tomb) was located just outside the camp. After we visited the wedge tomb the sun came out and we set out on the real hike soon reaching Kilmashogue forest which had a track winding up Kilmashogue Mountain. Here we were treated to some amazing views of Dublin city and the bay.
Rainy but worth it !
Stopping for a quick break and more stunning views at Three Rock we went for the summit of the Mountain where we came a cross a large cairn. Unfortunately the rain returned so we did not stay long but our tour guide gave an informative speech on the cairn despite the bad weather.
From there we followed the track around to the Tibradden ridge and through Pine Forest while being told the local history (and some interesting ghost stories!). We eventually returned to the scout camp at around 4pm knackered and sore but were soon treated to a pint and hot food at the local pub.
I'd like to thank all those who experienced this hike with me, especially Seamus, our guide and Cian who organised the day."

Trowel XV: Call for Papers !

Dear everyone,

Trowel is currently looking for contributions for Volume XV. Trowel is an archaeological journal from the School of Archaeology in UCD. It provides a platform for undergraduates, postgraduates and early career researchers to share their work and begin their publishing career. Submitting an article to the journal is an excellent opportunity to gain professional experience, discuss your ideas and see your name in print. Trowel has been a stepping-stone for many researchers who then went on to careers in archaeology, including our own Aidan O'Sullivan and Conor McDermott!

If you are interested, please submit an abstract (300 words max.) by 21st June 2014 to Published articles will be no longer than 3,000 words.

Please see below the ‘call for papers’ poster for Trowel Archaeological Journal.  
Past editions of the journal can be viewed at: .

Kind Regards,

Abigail Ash, Alexandra Guglielmi, Mark Haughton, Ian Ostericher
Editors Vol. XV
c/o The School of Archaeology,
University College Dublin,
Dublin 4

Saturday, 12 April 2014

Relay for Life 2014: how it went

On Wednesday 9th and Thursday 10th of April 2014, the Archaeology Society took part in the UCD Relay for Life in aid of the Irish Cancer Society. This year, we had two teams of 15 members registered !

We started early by setting up our fundraising tent between 12pm and 2pm: last year, the treacherous Irish winds had broken our previous gazebo, so this time, we took extra care to make it as stable as possible, tying it to the fences and adding extra weights around the feet. We had the Classics society as our neighbours for the event.

The Archaeology tent at the UCD Relay for Life 2014

The Classics Society at the UCD Relay for Life 2014

In addition to our 24-hour bake sale, we had organised a special lap, in armour and historical costumes: our very own "Historical Shield Parade". We received the visit of Prof. Gabriel Cooney, Dr. Alan Peatfield and Mr. Conor McDermott for this occasion ! However, the organisers of the Relay had quite a few problems with the sound system and in the end, we had to charge mainly to the sound of our Viking horns and battle cries. It was great fun though, and we sure made an impact on the visitors !

The Historical Shield Parade

We spent the rest of the afternoon selling cakes at our tent, as well as around campus, where a few of us went around with boxes of beautifully decorated cupcakes. Back on the pitch, the rest of the team was busy showing our visitors the various pieces of armour that we had on display: chain-mail, leather scabbards, furs, horns...

Curious visitors handling Tom Manning's shield
Then the evening came and with it, the beautiful Candle of Hope ceremony. This is really the heart of the Relay for Life: when candles are lit to celebrate survivors and to remember, to honour those we lost to cancer. A choir was singing The Parting Glass and members of the organizing committee read a poem. We then proceeded to walk three laps, in silence, to reflect on the meaning of Relay.

The Candles of Hope
As night went on, everyone kept fundraising in a variety of ways: selling tea, selling pizza, a raffle prize, dying hair, giving massages ... At the same time, the Relay organisers had put together a programme of activities to keep us all awake, and so it is that around 11pm, the UCD Trad Soc took the pitch and entertained us with their lively music (see video below). The bravest of us stayed at the tent throughout the night... ( I didn't this time!).

The "Night Team" at the Archaeology tent

The Relay ended at 2pm on the following day, by a gathering of all participants on the Relay track, and a crazy run to the sound of loud pop music. Once more, we were putting down the gazebo - in one piece this time - feeling both exhausted and exhilarated by the energy of Relay. It really is the most special event taking place at UCD every year, and we hope that the Society will be there again next year with a team (or two! ), to keep the spirit of Relay alive, and to keep fundraising for the Irish Cancer Society. The video below shows the highlights of the Relay 2014.

By Alexandra Guglielmi

The UCD Relay for Life 2014 Highlights

The 2014 UCD Relay for Life Archaeology Team (Team Members, Bakers and Shield-Bearers) was: 

Micheál Butler, Paul Codd, John Collins, Cian Corrigan,Alan Cumiskey,
Sarah Delaney (Team Captain), Peter Dodd, Mollie Christina Dogherty, Stephen Domican,
Emmet Fennelly, Mena Fitzgibbon, , Connor Fitzmaurice, John Fogarty, Adam Fowler,
Emily Geoghegan (Team Captain), Alexandra Guglielmi, Alix H., Sam Hughes,Conor Kavanagh,
Terry Kelleher, Patricia Kenny, Sean Kinsella, Lily MacNulty, Tom Manning,
Miriam McGovern, Holly Miley, Kerrie Nic Chormaic,Paula Moran Ortin,
Aisling O'Riordan Greene, Elena Sanchez Alonso, Jonathan Shiell,
Aoife Spollen, Brandon Walsh and Liam Wilson.

Friday, 11 April 2014

Charity bake sale for ASH Animal Rescue


Dear everyone, 

Next week, Society member Miriam van der Molen will be having a charity bake sale in aid of ASH Animal Rescue. The bake sale will take place on

Wednesday 16th April
Main Foyer, New Student Centre

"ASH Animal Rescue, run by Helena and Remy, has taken in dogs and cats since 1990. At the moment they have about 50-60 cats and the same number of dogs. ASH also has 23 permanent cat residents and keeps dogs permanently themselves that are unsuitable for rehoming, as there is a very strict no-kill policy in practice in ASH. They also have 3 foxes and other wild animals which are unable to live in the wild, which are permanent residents.

Helena and Remy do unbelievable work, having only 1 paid employee and 2 permanent volunteers. On their facebook page they post lost and found pets, and on their website they upload animals for rehoming. Please buy cakes to fund the amazing work these people do! :) 



UCD Archaeological Society AGM

The year is nearly over and its that time of the year again where YOU get to elect your new committee for the coming year 2014-2015. The elections are open to everybody in the society. So if you fancy being part of a great college tradition or want to give something back to your fellow students why not run for a place. The elections are open to first, second and third year (and postgraduate) students regardless of personal or professional experience.

There are plenty of positions to consider, so whether you fancy being next year's auditor or simply want to be more involved. All positions can be found on the committee page on our website:

The AGM will be held on:
Thursday 17th of April
K012 aka the Reading Room
School of Archaeology 

We hope to see you there and hope see you all involved further next year.
If you would like to discuss further how you can get involved, or what the positions entail feel free to contact us at

Society committees: 1942 and 2014

(This photograph can be found on Cian Corrigan's blog "Seeking the Society" )

Monday, 7 April 2014

Seminar: "Debating theories of Roman imperialism"

Dear everyone, 

What a week awaits us! After the Relay for Life this Wednesday and Thursday, we will welcome Dr. Andrew Gardner from UCL (London) to give us a talk entitled "Debating theories of Roman Imperialism". 

The seminar will take place 

Thursday 10th April 
Newman building, Room A109. 

This promises to be an extremely interesting seminar, which will address theoretical concepts widely applicable to archaeology, not just the Roman period.
Don't miss out !

Sunday, 6 April 2014

Historical shield parade at Relay for Life 2014

"Hold the line!" - 300 
Dear everyone, 

This year, 30 members of the Archaeology Society are taking part in the Relay for Life 2014 in aid of the Irish Cancer Society. We have come up with quite a special idea to create a buzz and attract people to our fundraising stall - while at the same time, showing UCD what we archaeologists do ! 

We will be hosting a "Historical Shield Parade" at 3pm on the opening day of the Relay, Wednesday 9th April. 

What will this consist of? Very simply, a group of us , having done Combat Archaeology with Dr. Peatfield, and made a shield as part of our assignment, will be marching around the Relay track for one lap and showing off these shields. We will be joined by other students in historical (more or less accurate) fancy dress, we will have a special soundtrack being played for us, and a little bird told me we will be equipped with replica Viking horns to make as much noise as possible !

So COME SEE US ! Come support us !

It is not too late to join the parade, all you need is either a shield or a costume - or just your enthusiasm and your shouts ! - just either email Alex at and let her know, or simply turn up on the day at 2:45pm and join the fun !

And remember you can support us by donating online to our fundraising page: 

Seminar report: Middle and Late Neolithic Amber, Jet and Bone ornaments contributions from the microscope

This seminar was spilt into two parts: the first discussed ornaments found at various sites throughout the Middle and Late Neolithic and the second part focused on the building of Bronze Age houses based on experimental techniques.

In order to discuss the vast amounts of information concerning this topic, Prof. van Gijn focused this lecture on three main time periods of manufacture during the Neolithic. The first is the Middle Neolithic between 3700-3400 BC, generally associated with the Hazendank group. The sites at Ypenburg and Schipluien provide incredible evidence of ornaments. Ypenburg contains a cemetery consisting of 37 graves, burials of women and children discovered containing ornaments that were shiny and had evidence of heavy wear. Jet beads discovered were all heavily worn whereas it would seem that the amber beads found in the burials were both worn and manufactured specially for burial. At Schipluiden bone beads were recovered from a child’s grave with pronounced evidence of manufacture. Further evidence at this site indicates that the amber and jet beads were not made with much thought.

The second time span refers to ornaments from the Funnel Beaker Period between 3400-2900 BC, this period saw the construction of megaliths and communal burials, generally amber ornaments were found as jet was not as easily available. One interesting characteristic about these beads is that they were reground before they were placed in the communal burials. Re-sharpened axes from the TRB megaliths - Trichterbecherkultur, ie. Funnel Beaker Culture -  add much to the debate. Van Gijn herself believes that these objects were reground in order to depersonalise them, so as to allow them into the communal tomb. Others, however, have argued that an object cannot be depersonalised as it already has a story.

The third period that was discussed is that of Beaker pottery, this time associated with more individual burials such as barrows. Ornaments linked to this period show different biographies in contrast to the Funnel Beaker tradition as they are more individual. At Hanzelijn in North Holland, 16 amber beads were recovered, all with different biographies but all were described as ‘pretty’. Another burial site, Hattemerbroek, provided 18 v-perforated beads, again with different biographies, some pretty and some worn.

During the second part of this seminar, Prof. Van Gijn focused on the more experimental side to her work and discussed the construction of a Bronze Age house. This lecture described the background to this experiment, the goals set out before hand,the construction and the final results. This house was to be constructed at Huize Hosterworld, after the Dutch National Forestry service wanted somewhere to begin walking tours. Diederik Pamstra wanted to attempt to build a house based on teachings from Hans de Haos and Prof. Van Gijn herself wanted an area to carry out other experiments. Some goals of this venture were: to use strictly stone tools and local material, the hardest goal to keep was the documentation of everything that occurred. Other problems with this building were identified during the planning stages, with for instance debates over where to locate the doors. Prof. Van Gijn gave us a great insight into the construction of the house with too much detail to fully describe.  The construction was a success, however Van Gijn states that it will need to be rebuilt again. At this point in time another structure is in the process of being built and will be finished sometime in the future and will be used to house future experiments. 

By Emily Geoghegan